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Karkaraly National Park

Qazaq Geography

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

About Park

Karkaraly State National Natural Park Republican State Enterprise was organized on December 01, 1998, by Decree of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan No.1212.
The territory of the national natural park belongs to the second category of specially protected natural territories with the status of an environmental and scientific institution of Republican significance. It is designed to conserve biological and landscape diversity, to use the unique natural complexes and objects of the State nature reserve fund (SNRF) for environmental, educational, scientific, tourist and recreational purposes - a fund that has a special ecological, scientific, historical, cultural and recreational value.
The total area of Karkaraly State National Natural Park at this time is 112120 hectares. Karkaraly SNNP was created in order to preserve and restore the unique natural complexes of the Karkaralinsky and Kent mountain forests. The objects of the SPNA fund are: forestry, geological, hydrological, geomorphological, zoological and botanical objects.

At the territory of Karkaraly SNNP, according to the laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Specially Protected Natural Territories”, the following functional zones have been allocated for compliance with the regime:

protected area – 29,800 ha – 26.6%;

environmental stabilization zone 16,123 ha – 14.4%;

tourist and recreational activity zone – 21, 330 ha – 19%;

zone of limited economic activity - 44,867 ha – 40.0%.

In addition, to ensure special protection and security of Karkaraly SNPP Republican State Enterprise from adverse external influences, a security zone with a total area of 138,917 hectares has been established by the Decree of the Akimat of Karaganda region around the border of the national park with a width of at least two kilometers.
Karkaraly SNPP consists of 4 forest districts:

Mountain forestry – 28,300 ha;

Karkaraly forestry – 22,311 ha;

Kentskoye forestry – 41,397 ha;

Bakhtinskoye forestry – 20,112 ha.

The protection of two zoological nature reserves - Beldeutas and Bektauata with a total area of 45б160 hectares is assigned to the national park.
The Karkaraly-Kent mountain junction consists of five relatively isolated mountain groups: Buguly, Shankoza, Matena, Aiyrtau and Kenta. The Karkaraly Mountains and Kent Massif have a noticeable landscape asymmetry: their northern slopes are steeper and noticeably richer in springs and vegetation than the southern and western ones. They are ridges forming a network of rocky ridges and peaks separated from each other by deep gorges, intermountain valleys and hollow-humped plains. Thus, in the Karkaraly massif, the Tar-Kezen and Akpet, Buguly and Air ridges diverge at an angle. Zhiren-Sakal Mounts (1,403 m), Shankoz Mounts (1,360), Buguly Mounts (1,323), Koktobe Mounts (1,254) and a number of other less significant peaks rise in height.

Location

Karaganda region. Karkaraly district.



49.25″ N. 75.25″ E.

Geography

The Karkaraly-Kent mountain junction consists of five relatively isolated mountain groups: Buguly, Shankoza, Matena, Aiyrtau and Kenta. The Karkaraly Mountains and Kent Massif have a noticeable landscape asymmetry: their northern slopes are steeper and noticeably richer in springs and vegetation than the southern and western ones. They are ridges forming a network of rocky ridges and peaks separated from each other by deep gorges, intermountain valleys and hollow-humped plains. Thus, in the Karkaraly massif, the Tar-Kezen and Akpet, Buguly and Air ridges diverge at an angle. The Komsomol Peak (1,403 m), Shankoz (1,360), Buguly (1,323), Koktobe (1,254) and a number of other less significant peaks rise in height.
The territory of the district is characterized by a wide-spread river valleys, nature meadows and lake basins, as well as areas of smoothed hillocky area.

Flora

The flora of Karkaraly SNNP has about 800 species of angiosperms. This is three times more than in the adjacent steppe zone. The main forest-forming species growing on the territory of Karkaraly SNNP are pine, birch, aspen, purple osiers, juniper, cotoneaster, arrowwood, honeysuckle, rosehip, currant, raspberry grow from a number of shrubs. Several types of strawberries grow, as well as different types of mushrooms can be find here.

Karkaraly barberry, Sphagnum teres, Kyrgyz birch, thin poppy, spring adonis are listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Kazakhstan. There are a large number of endemic and boreal plants in the flora of the Karkaraly and Kent mountain forest. Rare and endangered plant species include: Karkaraly wheatgrass, Karkaraly barberry, thin poppy, whitethroat monkshood, king’s-cure, green pyrola, larger wintergreen, Thymus crebrifolius, Kazakhstani yellow cress, Siberian saxifrage, vernal sandwort, one-flower wintergreen, red fescue, cream fumewort, narrow-leaved dittany, common spotted orchid, Venus’s-hair, blue anemone, herb Paris, Kamchatka bird’s-nest orchid, Pallas’s honeysuckle, peregrine dragonhead, European dogwood, Zalessky’s stipa, feather grass, yellow water lily, white water lily, ghost orchid, adder-spit, smooth sagebrush, Spanish licorice, Sphagnum teres, three-lobe spiraea, common tulip, yellow everlasting, male fern, Karkaraly campion, red-leaved iris, needle-leaved carnation, small-fruited spurge, red-leaved iris, mayflower, blue anemone, snowdrop anemone, alpine circaea, cut-leaved violet, dwarf pea, Asian forget-me-not, soft poppy and some others.
There are 190 species of vertebrates on the territory of Karkaraly SNNP: 46 species of mammals; at least 120 species of birds; 6 species of reptiles; 2 species of amphibians and 15 species of fish. Insect fauna has been poorly studied and there is currently no accurate data on its species composition.
The mammalian fauna is based on rodents - Red-cheeked Ground Squirrel, gray marmot, bobac, southern birch mouse, greater jerboa, Siberian jerboa, Asian hamster, Eversmann’s Hamster, East European hamster, flat-headed vole, northern red-backed mouse, muskrat, steppe lemming, water vole, common vole, narrow-headed vole, common field mouse, house mouse, harvest mouse.
Of the predators there are wolf, fox, corsac, badger, polecat, ermine, weasel, cat, lynx. Until 1940, bears were found on the territory of the national park. The largest mammals are ungulates: wild boar, maral, Siberian roe deer, elk, argali.
The territory of the national park is the habitat of the Kazakhstani moufflon – argali. The total number of argali in the national park is estimated at 190 species. This species is listed in the Red Book of Kazakhstan, the status is category 3. It is included in Annex 2 of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
Among the widespread species, a group of birds of prey that are becoming rare everywhere is well represented – golden eagle, eagle owl, steppe eagle, burial ground, dwarf eagle, lesser kestrel, short-toed eagle, saker falcon. A gray crane nests along the swampy floods of rivers.

Of the animals listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the following live in the National Park: argali, manul, gray crane, demoiselle, black stork, Dalmatian pelican, mute swan, whooper swan, golden eagle, harmel peganum, steppe eagle, owl, dwarf eagle, saker falcon, Pallas’ sandgrouse, steppe viper, Ignatov’s minnow.
In accordance with Decree of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of November 18, 2010, No.1212 “List of Geological, Geomorphological and Hydrological Objects of the State Nature Reserve Fund of Republican and International Significance”, the following objects of Karkaraly SNNP were included:

Geological
  • Ak-ayu Mountains (Ayushat) is a granite mountain located northwest of Kendarinsky Lake. The top, as a single peak, towers among the green valley of Kendara with small cone-shaped rocky sopkas. The name of the mountain was given by bears who once lived on its slopes.
  • Buguly Mountain, high hills up to 1100 m above sea level overgrown with birch and aspen groves and rosehip thickets.
  • Zhiren-Sakal Mount, the highest point in Karkaraly mountain forest massif - 1403 m built of granite and crowned with three peaks.
  • Koktobe MountMount, a cone-shaped mountain with a height of 1,254 m, looks like Kilimanjaro volcano from a panoramic view.
  • Tar-Kezen Mount, a low mountain range that cuts off the valley in which Karkaralinsk city is located from Kendara Valley.
  • Shankoz Mount with a height of 1200 m, apparently represents the crater of an extinct volcano.
  • Kalmyk shaft, an artificial structure made of stones in the form of an extended chain, runs along the edge of Karkaralinsk city and goes deep into the forest.

Geomorphological
  • Three Caves grotto. The cave consists of three sections, an area of 1 hectare, is of cultural and educational significance.
  • The Great Chamber stone grotto. It is of cultural and educational significance. A small cave, is of cultural and educational significance, a place visited by tourists since the founding of the city.
Hydrogeological
  • The sphagnum swamp site, a small area of 0.3 hectares located near the northwestern part of Karkaralinsk city, is of interest for the growth of a plant listed in the Red Book - sphagnum smooth. This is the southernmost point of growth of this plant in Kazakhstan.
On the territory of the national park there are such objects of historical and cultural heritage as the Kyzyl-Kensh Palace - an archaeological monument (Kent forestry) and the Forester’s House – the Forester’s House in the Komissarovka stow, built in 1914 (Karkaraly forestry). In Kent, the remains of the dwellings of the Begazy – Dandybaevskaya culture of the Late Bronze Age have been preserved, on an area of 30 hectares. It is the largest known settlement of this era in Central Kazakhstan. The population of this culture occupied vast areas of Kazakhstan, the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia and the steppe Altai.
In addition, according to this resolution, the “List of subsurface areas of special ecological, scientific, cultural and other value classified as specially protected natural territories of republican significance” includes the following subsurface areas of the KSNNP: Zhirensakal Mountain, Three Caves grotto, Kalmyk Val artificial structure, Great Chamber stone grotto, Basin Lake, Shaitankol Lake, the site of the sphagnum swamp.
Shaitankol Lake. The area is 0.14 hectares
It is a unique hydro-geological formation at an altitude of 1200 m above sea level.
Kamennaya Skazka (Stone Fairy Tale) Lake. The total area is 0.14 ha
It is a unique hydro–geological formation at an altitude of 1200 m above sea level.
The staffing schedule of Karkaraly SNNP provides for four departments:
  • Protection and Reproduction of Natural Objects and Complexes Department,
  • Science and Monitoring Department,
  • Tourism, Recreation and Environmental Education Department,
  • Finance and Organizational Work Department. The total staff number is 121 people.

The protection of the park territory is carried out by 75 state inspectors and 15 forest masters by ground patrol (on foot, horse and car detour) and air patrol of the territory by Kazavialesookhrana. On average, one state inspector accounts for up to 1200 hectares of protected territory.
In order to ensure compliance with the internal regime of the park, there are 5 checkpoints in the most visited sections of the SNNP. Together with law enforcement agencies, measures are systematically carried out to prevent violations of environmental legislation.

The Park annually develops and executes:
  • the operational work plan with law enforcement and environmental organizations;
  • the plan of fire-fighting measures in conjunction with the Emergency Situations Department and Fire Department-40, agreed with the Akim of Karkaraly district. Every year, before the start of the fire season, command and staff exercises are held.
There are 3 forest fire stations (FFS) in the park, which operate year-round. The equipment of the FFS with fire tankers, radio communication and fire extinguishing means is 98%.
Annually, a fire-fighting event is held: the device of mineralized strips is 9 km, the care of mineralized strips in the volume is 1957 km, before the start of the fire season, controlled annealing of grass in the volume of 120 hectares is carried out.
Articles on forest protection are regularly published in the central and local media.
The reproduction of forests is carried out by laying forest crops by planting, as well as creating favorable conditions for the natural renewal of forests. Every year, 13 hectares of seedlings of scots pine are planted on the chars of the past years. To ensure forest reproduction measures with the necessary amount of planting material, 1 permanent nursery and 1 temporary nursery operate on the territory, in which up to 341 thousand pieces of standard material are grown annually. According to results of the annual inventory, the average survival rate for planting forest crops is 75%.
The number of indicator animal species is determined based on results of annual surveys. According to results of accounting, the number of animals increases annually. Including the species listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Kazakhstan: argali, golden eagle, black stork, owl, dwarf eagle, the increase was 5% and for 22 animal species the increase is 6%.

Research activities are carried out through the organization of stationary system observations for the study of natural complexes and objects of the nature reserve fund, monitoring of natural processes, including the maintenance of the Chronicle of Nature, as well as the development of scientific foundations and methods for the conservation of biological diversity, restoration of ecological systems and objects of the nature reserve fund.

There is a library fund, a Museum of nature, represented by botanical, zoological, ornithological, entomological and local history halls. The total number of exhibits is 210 species, including animals – 16 species, birds – 55 species, 7 species of fish, 47 minerals. Over 100 species of herbariums of plants are stored in the administrative building.

Fauna

There are 46 species of mammals, 234 species of birds, 6 species of reptiles, 2 species of amphibians and 15 species of fish on the territory of the Karkaraly SNNP. The fauna of invertebrates has been poorly studied and there is currently no accurate data on its species composition. Of the animals listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Kazakhstan, argali, black stork, golden eagle, eagle owl, dwarf eagle, east steppe viper, Ignatov minnow (Phoxinus czekanowskii ignatowi) inhabit the territory of the National Park. The mammalian fauna is based on rodents - Red-cheeked Ground Squirrel, gray marmot, southern birch mouse, greater jerboa, Siberian jerboa, Asian hamster, Eversmann’s Hamster, East European hamster, flat-headed vole, northern red-backed mouse, muskrat, steppe lemming, water vole, common vole, narrow-headed vole, common field mouse, house mouse, harvest mouse. Of the predators there are wolf, fox, corsac, badger, steppe polecat, ermine, weasel, manul cat, lynx. Until 1940, bears were found on the territory of the KSNNP. The largest mammals are ungulates: wild boar, maral, Siberian roe deer, elk, argali. Representatives of insectivores from among mammals, bats and hares also live on the territory of the national park. Of the birds, most of the species are migratory, but there are a lot of nesting birds.

The territory of the national park is the habitat of the Kazakhstani moufflon – argali. This species is listed in the Red Book of Kazakhstan, the status is category 3. It is included in Annex 2 of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
Among the widespread species, a group of birds of prey that are becoming rare everywhere is well represented – golden eagle, eagle owl, steppe eagle, burial ground, dwarf eagle, lesser kestrel, short-toed eagle, saker falcon. A gray crane nests along the swampy floods of rivers.
Of the animals listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the following live in the National Park: argali, manul, gray crane, demoiselle, black stork, Dalmatian pelican, mute swan, whooper swan, golden eagle, harmel peganum, steppe eagle, owl, dwarf eagle, saker falcon, Pallas’ sandgrouse, steppe viper, Ignatov’s minnow.

Climate

The climate in the territory under consideration, as well as within the entire hillocky area as a whole, is extremely continental with an anticyclonic weather regime, which is characterized by the severity of the winter period, cool summer, significant fluctuations in daily and annual temperatures, frequent occurrence of droughts, dry winds and cloudy days a year.

-2 °С
-12...-15 °С
298 mm
+18...20 °С
1,7 m/s

Tourism

Tourist, recreational and environmental education activities

The Tourism, Recreation and Environmental Education Department of Karkaraly SNNP has the following work plans:
The annual work plan, which is included in the general work plan of Karkaraly SNNP, was approved by the Forestry and Wildlife Committee;
The step-by-step work plan of the Department provides weekly control over the implementation of activities by departments for the development of tourist and recreational activities. There are 4 tourist paths (routes) with a total length of 70.4 km in both directions in Karkaraly SNNP. All have approved passports.
Every year, 35-40 thousand people visit the territory of Karkaraly SNNP for tourist and recreational purposes.
The main visitors to the territory of the national park are residents of Karaganda region, partly residents of other regions of Kazakhstan.
There are 5 temporary checkpoints on the territory of the park, records of visitors of the SNNP are kept, where payments for the use of specially protected natural areas are collected.
In the border of Karkaraly SNNP there are 20 foreign land users with objects of health resorts and children’s camps, some of them are used all year round, the rest are used in the summer.



According to the general development plan, 11 lots of long-term use were allocated, with a total area of 55.44 hectares. Of these, 4 lots are currently operating, with a total area of 9.44 hectares. 19 plots were allocated for short-term use, with a total area of 87.7 hectares. Of these, 13 plots are functioning, with a total area of 10.62 hectares.

There are 20 third-party land users in the park, many of whom also provide recreation and tourism services and make payments to the Republic Budget for the use of Special Protected Natural Areas. The amount of these deductions is about 25-30% of all types of taxes and payments of the district to the Republic Budget.
According to the operational plan of the event on tourist activities, the improvement of tourist routes and parking lots is carried out.
Also, in order to develop tourism and attract local communities, 3 guest houses were created in Kassym Amanzholov and Kyzyl Kensh village of Kentsky Forestry together with Karkaraly NGO.
Within the framework of environmental education, actions, labor landings, contests, gatherings, excursions are held annually.
Agreements have been signed with three city schools on the organization of “School Forestry”. In the spring, it has already become traditional to hold the “March of Parks. In the recreation areas located on the territory of Karkaraly SNNP, talks and lectures on environmental topics are held. For ecological and educational purposes, students of the Biology and Geography Faculty of Buketov KarSU, KarSTU, Agrotechnical University and Gumilyov Eurasian University undergo practical training on the basis of Karkaraly SNNP.
The action “March of Parks” is held annually. The purpose of the campaign is to attract public attention to the problems of preserving unique natural complexes and objects, raising the prestige of national parks and nature reserves, and providing them with real assistance.
The formation of a positive public opinion in relation to specially protected natural territories, raising the level of ecological culture of the population, as well as the organization of its environmental education, upbringing and enlightenment – these are the main tasks set by the organizers of the March of Parks.
As part of the campaign, articles are published in the media, speeches are made on television, leaflets are issued, briefings are held.

Beauty sights

On the territory of the national park there are such objects of historical and cultural heritage as the Kyzyl-Kensh Palace - an archaeological monument (Kent forestry) and the Forester’s House – the Forester’s House in the Komissarovka stow, built in 1914 (Karkaraly forestry). In Kent, the remains of the dwellings of the Begazy – Dandybaevskaya culture of the Late Bronze Age have been preserved, on an area of 30 hectares. It is the largest known settlement of this era in Central Kazakhstan. The population of this culture occupied vast areas of Kazakhstan, the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia and the steppe Altai.
In addition, according to this resolution, the “List of subsurface areas of special ecological, scientific, cultural and other value classified as specially protected natural territories of republican significance” includes the following subsurface areas of the KSNNP: Zhirensakal Mountain, Three Caves grotto, Kalmyk Val artificial structure, Great Chamber stone grotto, Basin Lake, Shaitankol Lake, the site of the sphagnum swamp.

Contacts

General questions
info@q-g.kz

9 (7172) 999 336 ( 1014)

9 (705) 760 2950 (1054)

Expedition, events
Interaction with Media
Z10G9D2 Abai avenue, Astana, Kazakhstan
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